All about the Northern Lights
What are the Northern Lights?
The Northern lights are for most something they don’t see many times in their lives if ever. These bright dancing lights in the sky are actually collisions between electrically charged particles from the sun that enter the earth’s atmosphere. These collisions are seen from the earth like bright waves of colorful lights and can be seen from both the earth’s magnetic poles, south, and north.
The lights or auroras have different names depending on where you are seeing them from.
If you are in the south they are called the Southern Lights or Aurora Australis and in the north, they are called the Northern lights or Aurora Borealis.
The Northern lights or the Aurora Borealis is what we will talk about in this blog. They can be seen in multiple colors although the green and pink are the most common
What causes the Northern Lights?
The auroras are formed when fast moving electronically charged particles from space and oxygen or nitrogen gas collide in our atmosphere.
These electrons (electronically charged particles) originate in the magnetosphere, the region of space controlled by Earth’s magnetic field. As they move into the Earth’s atmosphere the electrons change their energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules. When the molecules return to their original, normal state they let go off photons which are small bursts of energy in the form of light.
The variations in color are due to the type of gas particles that are colliding.
The temperature above the surface of the sun is millions of degrees in Celsius. Collisions between gas molecules are very common at this temperature and explosive.
Free electrons and protons get thrown from the sun’s atmosphere when the sun is rotating and get through the holes in the magnetic field. When they then get blown towards the Earth by the solar wind, the charged particles are largely deflected by the earth’s magnetic field. But, the Earth’s magnetic field is weaker at either pole and because of this some particles enter the Earth’s atmosphere and collide with gas particles close to the poles. These collisions give off light that we perceive as the dancing lights of the north (and the south). The collisions are the Auroras.
Northern Lights vs. Aurora Borealis
Some might think that there is a difference between these two but actually there is none. The difference is just in the names. Northern Lights and Aurora Borealis are the same phenomena just two different names for the same thing.
What is the best time to see the Northern Lights?
Iceland has an extreme difference with seasons when it comes to light. During summer time we have the famous midnight sun that keeps the sky bright 24/7 during this period the Northern Lights aren’t visible even though they might be there. During the darker months (winter time) the lights can be seen and the darker the better.
Just picture a white crayon drawn on a piece of black paper vs. a piece of light blue paper. This is pretty simple, the darker the sky is the better the lights can be seen.
The darkest months are from October-March but the lights can be equally as good in the months before and after you might just need to stay up later.
Another factor is the strength of the lights. The strength of the lights varies a lot and it’s good to check the forecast for the Icelandic Northern Lights the before heading out. The forecast is usually pretty accurate a few days before.
The last factor I will mention is the clouds. IF the clouds are thick above they are lower than the actual lights so they will block the lights from being seen from earth.
So three main things we want, dark skies, strong lights and no clouds!
Where is it best to see the Northern Lights?
For the Northern lights the general rule is the further north you go the better chance you have but again I will point at the statement above. The strength of the lights, the amount of clouds and the darkness are the three major factors.
Iceland is an excellent place to see the northern lights and I have even seen them from the capital BUT getting away from city lights is always best so I will say anywhere in Iceland really, as long as you are away from all light pollution.
Different colors of the Northern Lights
Green: Particles collide with oxygen at 90-200 km height. This is the most common colors as the eye is also the most sensitive to the color green.
Dark Red: Particles collide with oxygen at a height more than 200 km. Dark red colors are most often seen the highest in the lights caused by electronically charged molecules that have excited the oxygen atom.
Bright Red: Nitrogen within 90 km. A common color when the solar winds get strong and very charged electrons excite the molecules.
Purple & Blue: Active Nitrogen.
Pink & Yellow When red and green lights mix together.
Photographing the Northern Lights
Cameras that can manage to take pictures of the auroras have to have a manual setting. The camera needs to be usable in high ISO setting which is often not the case for older cameras (7 years or older).
What lens to use
It’s best to use lenses that are panoramic and/or wide and have a large diaphragm. You can use a tight/close-fitted/close lens but if you want to have some landscape in the picture panoramic/wide lenses are best.
The lens needs to have a focus indicator as well to see where the focus is because autofocus does not work in this situation. This indicator is found on most finer lenses and is usually situated on top of it.
How to adjust everything
The camera itself should be adjusted to manual mode.
The diaphragm should be adjusted to the largest diaphragm the lens provides, the lower the diaphragm number is, the better, 1.4, 2.0 or 2.8 are the best ones.
The shutter speed should be adjusted to around 4 seconds in the beginning. Sometimes you need shorter time but usually longer time, about 4-15 seconds, is best. It is not recommended to go over 20 seconds because it will develop something called star trail in the stars making it less focused and unreal.
The ISO (photosensitive/sensitive), should be adjusted to ISO 800 in the beginning. Most of the time ISO 800-3200 is used but the lower the number the better the quality and better colors. You can experiment with this number, it will all depend on how strong the aurora is.
When it comes to the lens it’s best to adjust it to manual focus and if your camera has image stabilizer, it’s best to turn that off. Also if you have some sort of a filter fastened on the front of the lens, a UV-filter or something similar you should take that off as well.
The focus should then be adjusted to infinity, there the window with the focus indicator should appear. If the focus is not stable in the lens you should turn the focus circle to the left or right, depends on the manufacturer which way the infinity setting is, and then a little bit back again, but only a little bit. It might be hard to get focus in these situations but if you have trouble with it, you can zoom out the lens to the max and try to focus on a star and then zoom back when the focus is there.
Last the camera is best placed on a tripod and if you have something called shutter release then it is good to use that but not necessary.
White balance is best to adjust on AW (auto white balance). The aurora is moving fast and the color changes also quickly so this setting is the best in this situation.
So, the basics are:
- Put the camera on the tripod, take filters off of any and turn off the no shake
- ISO should be adjusted to 800-3200.
- The diaphragm should be as big as the lens provides.
- Shutter speed should be 4-15 seconds.
- White Balance adjusted to auto white balance
- Take extra batteries with you, because it will empty fast in the cold.
- Flashlight if possible so you can see what you are doing while adjusting the settings on the camera.
Guided tours vs. Northern lights on your own
What are the options for Northern Lights tours in Iceland?
$ Joining a classic bus tour
This is the standard bigger bus experience. You will be picked up taken to the best location and get a guide to talk you through it. This is perfect for those looking to see the Northern lights without spending much!
$ Boat ride from Reykjavík
The Whale Watching boats are used for Northern Lights hunting in the evening. It’s actually pretty cool but dress accordingly it’s cold, brrr!
The price of the Boat ride from Reykjavik is fair as well.
$$ Small group experience in a Super Jeep
This is more money but well worth it. The Northern Light Explorer tour in a Super Jeep can take you further out, where the bus might not be able to reach, this does up your chance of seeing the lights. Another benefit of going in a super jeep is that you will go in a smaller group.
Joining the Laugavegur trek late in the season
It’s local knowledge that after the first of August the Northern Lights are very common on the Laugavegur trail. You are so far away from any light pollution, located in the highlands and then the sky just starts dancing. There is no real way to explain this but Oh my! It’s something you will never forget.
This is also pretty much the only way to see the Northern Lights in Iceland so early in the season.
Trekking in winter
For example in Þórsmörk or Landmannalaugar. By this time of the year, you might even have these popular places to yourself. Getting there is difficult in winter though, so join a tour, again no need to risk anything. Enjoy life, have a great adventure but stay safe.
These lights are special, they are elusive, unpredictable, the can last for a few minutes or hours, they come and go, they change colors, they are always worth the wait, the trip, the effort, the missed sleep, they never get old and they always leave you in awe.
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